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UNLOCK the Power of Coaching: Essential Coaching Models for Aspiring Coaches

Coaching is a developmental process in which a coach supports a client (also called a coachee) in achieving specific personal or professional goals. This process often involves a series of structured conversations and interactions aimed at unlocking the client's potential, enhancing their performance, and facilitating growth and improvement.



Key aspects to coaching

When we talk about coaching here are the defining characteristics of the process:


  1. Goal-Oriented: Coaching focuses on helping clients identify and achieve their goals, whether they are related to career advancement, personal development, skill enhancement, or overcoming challenges.

  2. Client-Centered: The coaching process is tailored to the individual needs and aspirations of the client. It involves active listening, powerful questioning, and providing feedback that encourages self-discovery and self-improvement.

  3. Action and Accountability: Coaches help clients develop actionable plans and hold them accountable for following through on their commitments. This often involves setting milestones and regularly reviewing progress.

  4. Supportive Relationship: A successful coaching relationship is built on trust, confidentiality, and mutual respect. The coach provides a safe space for clients to explore their thoughts and feelings without judgment.

  5. Skill Development: Coaching can help clients develop specific skills such as leadership, communication, time management, and problem-solving.

  6. Behavioral Change: Through coaching, clients can identify and change limiting beliefs and behaviors, leading to more effective and adaptive actions.


Coaching and counseling, while both supportive and client-centered, differ significantly in purpose and approach. Coaching is future-oriented, focusing on helping individuals achieve specific goals, enhance performance, and develop new skills. It is suitable for well-functioning clients seeking improvement in areas like career or personal development, utilizing goal-setting and accountability techniques. Conversely, counseling addresses past and present emotional and psychological issues, providing healing and coping strategies for clients experiencing mental health concerns. Counselors have advanced degrees and are trained to diagnose and treat mental health conditions, employing therapeutic techniques to facilitate understanding and resolution of personal problems.



Types of coaching include:


  • Executive Coaching: Focuses on helping senior leaders and executives enhance their leadership skills and navigate organizational challenges.

  • Career Coaching: Assists individuals in making informed career decisions, improving job performance, and achieving career goals.

  • Life Coaching: Aims to help individuals improve their overall well-being, balance personal and professional lives, and achieve personal goals.

  • Performance Coaching: Focuses on improving specific skills and performance in areas such as sports, public speaking, or artistic endeavors.

  • Health and Wellness Coaching: Supports individuals in achieving health-related goals, such as weight loss, fitness, and stress management.


The effectiveness of coaching often depends on the quality of the relationship between the coach and the client, as well as the client's willingness to engage in self-reflection and take proactive steps toward change.


What makes a good coach great?

  • Active Listening:

  • Ability to fully concentrate, understand, respond, and remember what the client says.

  • Demonstrates empathy and creates a supportive environment.

  • Powerful Questioning:

  • Skill in asking open-ended questions that provoke thought and insight.

  • Helps clients explore their feelings, values, and goals more deeply.

  • Effective Communication:

  • Clear and concise expression of ideas and feedback.

  • Ability to articulate observations and insights in a way that is constructive and encouraging.

  • Empathy:

  • Understanding and sharing the feelings of the client.

  • Builds trust and fosters a safe, non-judgmental coaching space.

  • Goal-Setting:

  • Proficiency in helping clients set SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound) goals.

  • Supports clients in developing actionable plans to achieve these goals.

  • Accountability:

  • Ability to hold clients accountable for their commitments.

  • Encourages clients to take responsibility for their actions and progress.

  • Flexibility and Adaptability:

  • Being open to adjusting coaching techniques and approaches based on the client’s needs.

  • Willingness to adapt to different personalities and situations.

  • Knowledge of Coaching Models and Techniques:

  • Familiarity with various coaching models (e.g., GROW, CLEAR, OSKAR, Transformational Coaching).

  • Understanding of when and how to apply different models to suit the client’s context.

  • Emotional Intelligence:

  • Ability to recognize and manage one’s own emotions, as well as those of the client.

  • Helps in navigating complex interpersonal dynamics and fostering positive relationships.

  • Patience and Persistence:

  • Willingness to allow clients to progress at their own pace.

  • Persistent in encouraging and supporting clients through challenges and setbacks.

  • Ethical Practice and Professionalism:

  • Adherence to ethical guidelines and maintaining confidentiality.

  • Demonstrates integrity and professionalism in all interactions.

  • Self-Reflection and Continuous Learning:

  • Commitment to personal and professional growth.

  • Regularly reflects on coaching practice and seeks feedback to improve.

  • Problem-Solving Skills:

  • Ability to help clients identify obstacles and develop strategies to overcome them.

  • Encourages creative thinking and solution-focused approaches.

  • Cultural Competence:

  • Awareness and respect for diverse backgrounds and perspectives.

  • Ability to coach effectively across cultural boundaries.

  • Motivation and Encouragement:

  • Ability to inspire and motivate clients to reach their full potential.

  • Provides positive reinforcement and celebrates client successes.



Essential Coaching Models


There are a number of coaching models practitioners may use, each coaching model has a unique approach and methodology.


Here are the top 10 I like to refer to and that are most well known, remember each of these models can be tailored to fit the specific needs and goals of the client, providing a structured yet flexible framework for effective coaching.


1. GROW Model

  • Goal: Establish what the client wants to achieve.

  • Reality: Explore the current situation and challenges.

  • Options: Identify possible strategies and actions.

  • Will: Determine the steps the client will take and the commitment level.

2. CLEAR Model

  • Contracting: Establish the coaching relationship and agree on the goals.

  • Listening: Actively listen to understand the client's perspective.

  • Exploring: Investigate issues, challenges, and opportunities.

  • Action: Develop actionable plans and strategies.

  • Review: Evaluate progress and outcomes, and adjust as needed.

3. OSKAR Model

  • Outcome: Define what the client wants to achieve.

  • Scaling: Assess the current situation on a scale.

  • Know-how & Resources: Identify the client's strengths and resources.

  • Affirm & Action: Affirm progress and create action steps.

  • Review: Review progress and set new goals if necessary.

4. Co-Active Coaching

  • Emphasizes the coach-client relationship as a partnership.

  • Focuses on balancing "being" (mindset, emotions) and "doing" (actions, behaviors).

  • Encourages clients to be fully engaged and take responsibility for their development.

5. Transformational Coaching

  • Aims to bring about deep, lasting change by addressing the client's beliefs, values, and identity.

  • Focuses on helping clients shift their mindset and develop new perspectives.

  • Often involves exploring and challenging limiting beliefs and behaviors.

6. Solution-Focused Coaching

  • Concentrates on finding solutions rather than analyzing problems.

  • Encourages clients to envision their desired future and identify steps to achieve it.

  • Uses techniques like scaling questions and exception finding.

7. Narrative Coaching

  • Uses storytelling and narrative techniques to help clients understand and reshape their personal stories.

  • Focuses on the client's experiences and the meanings they attach to them.

  • Helps clients identify and change limiting narratives to empower their growth.

8. Possibilities and Metaphors Coaching

  • Utilizes metaphors and imaginative scenarios to help clients explore new possibilities and perspectives.

  • Encourages creative thinking and helps clients see their situations in a new light.

  • Facilitates deeper understanding and breakthrough insights by tapping into the client's imagination.

9. Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) Coaching

  • Uses techniques from NLP to help clients change their thought patterns and behaviors.

  • Focuses on understanding how clients process information and their communication styles.

  • Aims to reframe negative beliefs and develop more positive, empowering mental models.

10. Transactional Analysis (TA) Coaching

  • Based on the psychological theory of transactional analysis.

  • Explores the client's interactions and communication patterns.

  • Helps clients understand their behavior and improve their relationships by analyzing the 'Parent,' 'Adult,' and 'Child' aspects of their personality



A working example of coaching in action using Narrative Coaching:

Client Profile:

  • Name: Lisa*

  • Situation: Lisa is an experienced project manager feeling stuck and unfulfilled in her current job. She wants to transition to a more creative role but is unsure how to make the change and lacks confidence in her abilities.

Coaching Process:

  1. Initial Exploration:

  • Storytelling: Lisa shares her career story, including her achievements, challenges, and the reasons behind her desire for change. She describes her dissatisfaction with her current role and her dreams of a more fulfilling career in a creative field.

  • Identifying Themes: The coach listens for recurring themes, patterns, and significant moments in Lisa’s story, helping her to identify the narratives that have shaped her professional identity.

  1. Challenging Limiting Narratives:

  • Examining Beliefs: The coach helps Lisa identify and challenge limiting beliefs and narratives, such as "I'm not creative enough" or "It's too late to change careers." They explore where these beliefs come from and how they have influenced her career decisions.

  • Reframing: The coach encourages Lisa to reframe her experiences and skills in a positive light, highlighting her strengths, adaptability, and previous instances where she demonstrated creativity and innovation.

  1. Creating New Narratives:

  • Visioning: Lisa and the coach co-create a new narrative for her future career, envisioning what success and fulfillment look like in a creative role. They explore potential career paths that align with her passions and strengths.

  • Building Confidence: Through storytelling exercises, the coach helps Lisa build a narrative of herself as a capable and creative professional, capable of successfully transitioning to a new role.

  1. Action Plan:

  • Setting Goals: Lisa sets specific, actionable goals to move towards her new career. This might include taking creative skills courses, networking with professionals in the desired field, and applying for relevant positions.

  • Ongoing Support: The coach provides ongoing support, helping Lisa to stay motivated and overcome any obstacles by revisiting and reinforcing her new, empowering narratives.

  1. Review and Reflection:

  • Reflecting on Progress: Lisa and the coach regularly review her progress, reflecting on how the new narratives have influenced her actions and mindset. They celebrate successes and adjust the plan as needed.

  • Sustaining Change: The coach helps Lisa develop strategies to sustain her new narratives and continue growing in her new career, ensuring long-term satisfaction and fulfillment.


*client name and details changed


This scenario illustrates how narrative coaching can help individuals reframe their stories, overcome limiting beliefs, and create empowering narratives that facilitate significant career transitions and personal growth.


Let me know any experiences, tips or insights you have from your coaching journey!


Yours sincerely,


The Humble Humanologist

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